The Philippines frogs of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura; Megophryidae): taxonomic revision, phylogeny-based species delimitation, and descriptions of three new species.
We review the Philippine frogs of the genus Leptobrachuim. All previous treatments have referred Philippine populations to L. hasseltii, a species we restrict to Java and Bali, Indonesia. We use external morphology, body proportions, color pattern, advertisement calls, and phylogenetic analysis of molecular sequence data to show that Philippine populations of Leptobrachium represent three distinct and formerly unrecognized evolutionary lineages, and we describe each (populations on Mindoro, Palawan, and Mindanao Island groups) as new species. Our findings accentuate the degree to which the biodiversity of Philippine amphibians is currently underestimated and in need of comprehensive review with new and varied types of data.